Thursday, 17 July 2014

3 Benefit of Radio Activity

Radioactive rot has been put to use in the system of radioisotopic naming, used to track the section of a compound substance through a complex framework, (for example, a living life form). An example of the substance is blended with a high centralization of flimsy iotas. The vicinity of the substance in one or an alternate piece of the framework is controlled by distinguishing the areas of rot occasions. 

The radioactive decay is really arbitrary (as opposed to only disorderly), it has been utilized within fittings irregular number generators. Since the methodology is not thought to change altogether in system about whether, it is additionally a significant instrument in assessing unquestionably the periods of specific materials. For topographical materials, the radioisotopes and sure of their rot items get trapped when a rock sets, and can then later be utilized (subject to a lot of people well-known capabilities) to gauge the date of the hardening. These incorporate checking the consequences of a few concurrent methodologies and their items against one another, inside the same example. 

Radiation treatment (or radiotherapy) is the restorative utilization of ionizing radiation as a feature of disease treatment to control harmful cells (not to be confounded with radiology, the utilization of radiation in medicinal imaging and determination). Radiotherapy may be utilized for corrective or adjuvant tumor treatment. It is utilized as palliative treatment (where cure is impractical and the point is for nearby illness control or symptomatic easing) or as restorative treatment (where the help has survival profit however is not corrective). Aggregate body light (TBI) is a radiotherapy strategy used to set up the body to get a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has a couple of uses in non-threatening conditions, for example, the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, extreme thyroid eye infection, pterygium, aversion of keloid scar development, and counteractive action of heterotopic solidification. The utilization of radiotherapy in non-dangerous conditions is restricted somewhat by stresses over the danger of radiation-impelled malignancies. 

Radiometric dating (frequently called radioactive dating) is a method used to date materials, in view of a correlation between the watched richness of specific characteristically happening radioactive isotopes and their known rot rates.[1] It is the chief wellspring of data about unquestionably the period of rocks and other topographical peculiarities, including the age of the Earth itself. Among the best-known strategies are potassium-argon dating and uranium-lead dating. By permitting the station of geographical timescales, it gives a huge wellspring of data about the dates of fossils and the reasoned rates of evolutionary change. Radiometric dating is likewise used to date archeological remains and aged ancient rarities, the best known strategy in this field being radiocarbon dating.

Friday, 15 February 2013

Danger of radioactive substances

The dangers of radioactivity and radiation were not immediately recognized. Acute effects of radiation were first observed in the use of X-rays when electrical engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla intentionally subjected his fingers to X-rays in 1896.[3] He published his observations concerning the burns that developed, though he attributed them to ozone rather than to X-rays. His injuries later healed.

The genetic effects of radiation, including the effect of cancer risk, were recognized much later. In 1927, Hermann Joseph Muller published research showing genetic effects, and in 1946 was awarded the Nobel prize for his findings.

Before the biological effects of radiation were known, many physicians and corporations began marketing radioactive substances as patent medicine in the form of glow-in-the-dark pigments. Examples were radium enema treatments, and radium-containing waters to be drunk as tonics. Marie Curie protested this sort of treatment, warning that the effects of radiation on the human body were not well understood. 

Curie later died from aplastic anemia, likely caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. By the 1930s, after a number of cases of bone necrosis and death of enthusiasts, radium-containing medicinal products had been largely removed from the market (radioactive quackery).

Thursday, 9 August 2012

Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay is the process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing particles (ionizing radiation). There are many different types of radioactive decay (see table below). A decay, or loss of energy, results when an atom with one type of nucleus, called the parent radionuclide, transforms to an atom with a nucleus in a different state, or to a different nucleus containing different numbers of protons and neutrons. Either of these products is named the daughter nuclide. In some decays the parent and daughter are different chemical elements, and thus the decay process results in nuclear transmutation (creation of an atom of a new element).

The first decay processes to be discovered were alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay. Alpha decay occurs when the nucleus ejects an alpha particle (helium nucleus). This is the most common process of emitting nucleons, but in rarer types of decays, nuclei can eject protons, or specific nuclei of other elements (in the process called cluster decay). Beta decay occurs when the nucleus emits an electron or positron and a type of neutrino, in a process that changes a proton to a neutron or the other way around. The nucleus may capture an orbiting electron, converting a proton into an neutron (electron capture). All of these processes result in nuclear transmutation.

By contrast, there exist radioactive decay processes that do not result in transmutation. The energy of an excited nucleus may be emitted as a gamma ray in gamma decay, or used to eject an orbital electron by interaction with the excited nucleus in a process called internal conversion. Radioisotopes occasionally emit neutrons, and this results in a change in an element from one isotope to another.

One type of radioactive decay results in products which are not defined, but appear in a range of "pieces" of the original nucleus. This decay is called spontaneous fission. This decay happens when a large unstable nucleus spontaneously splits into two (and occasionally three) smaller daughter nuclei, and usually emits gamma rays, neutrons, or other particles as a consequence.

Radioactive decay is a stochastic (i.e., random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay. However, the chance that a given atom will decay is constant over time. For a large number of atoms, the decay rate for the collection is computable from the measured decay constants of the nuclides (or equivalently from the half-lifes).

Wednesday, 17 August 2011

Gentoo Penguin

The Gentoo Penguin, Pygoscelis papua, is easily recognized by the wide white stripe extending like a bonnet across the top of its head. Chicks have grey backs with white fronts. Adult Gentoos reach a height of 51 to 90 cm (20–36 in), making them the largest penguins outside of the two giant species, the Emperor Penguin and the King Penguin.

The application of Gentoo to the penguin is unclear, according to the OED, which reports that Gentoo was an Anglo-Indian term, used as early as 1638 to distinguish Hindus in India from Muslims, the English term originating in Portuguese gentio (compare "gentile"); in the twentieth century the term came to be regarded as derogatory.